Norvergence: Today the Arctic is a treeless plain with just scanty tundra vegetation, for example, grasses, sedges and a couple of blossoming plants. Interestingly, the Russian residue centres contained dust from trees, for example, larch, tidy, fir and hemlock.

Norvergence:  This shows that boreal woods, which today end several miles farther south and west in Russia and at the Arctic Circle in Alaska when arrived at all the path to the Arctic Ocean across a lot of Arctic Russia and North America.


Norvergence: Since the Arctic was a lot hotter in the Pliocene, the Greenland Ice Sheet didn’t exist. Little ice sheets along Greenland’s hilly eastern coast were among a couple of spots with all year ice in the Arctic. The Pliocene Earth had ice just toward one side in Antarctica and that ice was not so much broad but rather more defenceless to dissolving.